to employees and customers along with the ability to effectively and efficiently collaborate with partners and vendors.
Note that without Digital Transformation, achieving Business Agility is a hallucination!
While it is great to imagine and document your future, but any shortcuts you take in the assessing your present will come back to haunt you in the future!
Today (Where you are)
Tomorrow (Where you want to be)
Imagine an organization where people, business processes, products, services, and technologies are in sync. Where an organization performs at its most optimal levels and miraculously everyone is happy and contributing to the wellbeing of the organization. No, I am not talking about a fictional scenario in a far off land. I am talking about an organization harnessing all the power of its capabilities to achieve Business Transformation. And I believe that there are a lot of organizations that can achieve if they view Business Transformation as a holistic and all-encompassing endeavor. So, today I am going to talk to you about how SPICE can make your organizations better.
I help organizations pursue a better version of themselves. In this pursuit, I collaborate with front-line employees, middle management and the C-suite to understand issues beyond the obvious so that individuals and organizations can achieve their objectives. Over the years, I have held many titles but the underlying theme is to always do and look for Business Transformation opportunities.
Business is “the activity of making, buying, or selling goods or providing services in exchange for money” for corporations. For non-profits, business is the pursuit of social causes. For educational institutes, business is the pursuit of knowledge. For governments, business is the pursuit of citizen services and for military business is national security.
Transformation is “a process”.
Now, that you have a baseline understanding of what Business Transformation is and how it helps, the next time when you hear this term you would be aware that it is not just another buzzword and not just another business initiative that would disappear with time.
Now, imagine a person named John who is walking through an unknown and dark tunnel with just a flashlight in his hands and he is carrying some baggage behind him. John does not know what is in the baggage. He continues to use the flashlight to look ahead to find his way out. His resources are limited. Thus, his objective is to reach the correct end of this unknown and dark tunnel as efficiently as possible.
Would John make it?
According to some experts, if this person were an organization pursuing Business Transformation then he would have failed 70% of the time. Think about this for a second, this means that only 30% of Business Transformation endeavors are able to achieve their full potential. Why is this?
While there could be a variety of reasons for this high failure rate, I have observed that the number one reason for this is related to a typical conversation within organizations.
How many times have you said or heard someone say, “the business” wants this and “the business” wants that and that “the business” doesn’t understand that systems cannot be developed overnight? Ingrained in this sort of thinking is the idea that somehow IT is different from “the business”.
Somehow there is this “Us” vs. “Them” mentality.
If we think about it, all organizations take advantage of technological advancements. Paper, which was once considered a technology itself, is now used in every organization today in one way or another. Today, all organizations are digital in one way or another even if they don’t realize it yet and to think that they do not stem from this “Us” vs. “Them” mentality.
Perhaps it is time to change the conversation! Perhaps it is time to think about IT as not something that is outside of “the business” but it is part of “the business”. To have this conversation, there has to be a mutual understanding that neither “side” should downplay the importance of the other. This requires an understanding that all technical and non-technical aspects of the organization are there to support the end objectives of business transformation and that collaboration works much better than just mere animosity.
When I started assessing and improving organizations in 2003, I didn’t know what it was called. All I wanted to do was help organizations apply the full potential of their capabilities beyond what they perceived them to be which included but not limited to IT capabilities. Over the years, this took on new meaning for me as the conversation quickly changed from just doing my duties to fundamentally reshaping organizations inside out.
A couple of years ago Business Transformation, IT Transformation, and Digital Transformation started to pick up steam and it took off. A lot more individuals and organizations started to pay attention when they saw their bread and butter business models being shattered in light of the new economy. Startups like Uber took on the Taxi Services around the world and now are expanding into other means of transportation as well. In response, Taxi Service companies pushed back hard by either through legislation and government policy or creating their own taxi mobile apps. If the taxi service companies think that they can compete with Uber with just their own taxicab apps then they are hugely mistaken. This is just one example that illustrates how one industry became complacent and within a short period of time a competitor emerged with a new business model that directly tied its operations to technology and the rest, as we know it, is history.
So, if you think about it, Business Transformation is not a standalone activity but a holistic one. Thus, if the people, business processes, products, services and technologies are ignored or not paid enough attention then Business Transformation becomes just another pipe dream.
As I see it, organizations that are committed to figuring out the Business Transformation journey have to ask 5 fundamental questions from an internal perspective and an external perspective. These questions are:
These are all important questions to ask before, during and after the Business Transformation journeys. But if there are no effective feedback loops then most Business Transformation journeys would be just a one-time initiative and not something that makes organizations become self-improvement entities.
By this time, most of you might be thinking “well ok I get it that Business Transformation is more than what meets the eye but so what?!!”
What does Business Transformation really have to do with Business Architecture?
A valid question. I want you to think about this…
Do you see Business Architecture as just a plan, as just a design or a model, maybe perhaps a guide, or a way to create documentation, or for the purposes of alignment? Or do you see Business Architecture as a way to accomplish a vision and even to improve an organization’s mentality.
The fundamental reason we do Business Architecture in the first place is to fully leverage the technical and non-technical capabilities of the organization to transform itself. You don’t create a plan or a model or a guide to just document it but you do create it so that these insights can be used to make the organization better otherwise why do it in the first place anyway!
Thus, Business Architecture and Business Transformation are highly intertwined. An effective Business Architecture would open up avenues for Business Transformation so that when it comes to responding to market demands, the strategy does not get lost in translation when it comes time for execution.
I have spent many years recognizing patterns in my own engagements, academic literature and case studies and have determined that there are fundamentally 5 factors that affect the journeys towards Business Transformation.
These 5 factors are Strategies, Politics, Innovation, Culture and Execution or simply called the SPICE Factors.
I represent these factors in a pentagon shape. On its edges are the 5 factors which start from Strategies on the left-hand corner and going clockwise until Execution. In the middle of the pentagon shape, there is a loop in yellow indicating that Business Transformation is a continuous process and not just a single project or initiative. Besides each SPICE factors, there is a performance indicator to represent that each of the factors has to be measured. This measurement can entail Key Performance Indicators and even Service Level Agreement checks.
The red pentagon indicates where the organization is today (aka the current state) while the green pentagon indicates where the organization wants to be tomorrow (aka the future state). In the middle, the yellow arrow from the red pentagon to the green pentagon indicates transition and indicates the areas that need to be taken into consideration namely people, business processes and technologies. By extension, these areas influence the products and services provided by the organization.
I am going to go through each of these 5 factors and make you think about how each of these factors can affect Business Transformation within your organizations.
The first SPICE factor is Strategies. The strategy is a careful plan or method for achieving a particular goal usually over a long period of time. Depending upon how far out your organization can think, a long period of time can be 1 year, 3 years or even 10 years. Of course, as you go further out in time, your strategy gets complex as you might not be able to anticipate what is going to happen.
There are many levels of strategies within the organization such as Financial Strategy, Marketing Strategy, Operations Strategy, and IT Strategy to name a few. Additionally, strategies can be top-down, bottom-up, cross-functional and hybrids. But fundamentally, I put strategies in three big buckets namely Organizational Strategy which affects Executives (e.g., performance compensation, M&A, etc.), Team Strategy which affects Middle Management (e.g., Operational Improvement, Tool Selection, etc.) & Individual Strategy which affects front-line employees (e.g., career trajectory, hiring, etc.).
In addition to these strategies and the types of people that they affect, it gets more complex and the real relationships actually look more complicated. Upon further depth, we realize that all of these types of strategies have an internal perspective and an external perspective.
For example, from an internal perspective, the organizational strategy looks at things like the type of organizational structures such as functional, matrixed, product-based or hybrids. Depending upon what structure your organization has or wants to evolve into, there would be repercussions. In a functional organizational structure, focus on areas of expertise is increased but what is lost is the cross-collaboration which leads to silos. On the other hand, in a matrixed project-based structure, the individuals are only needed for the duration of that project and then they go back into a pool to be picked up or not. What incentive do people have in this type of structure to get the job done efficiently? Something to think about.
Depending upon what the end goal is, these strategies can
The last point is interesting since a strategy with bloated expectations or no expectations at all can lead to misalignment namely between IT Strategy and other Organizational Strategies. Let’s think about this…
A root cause understanding from technical and non-technical views can reveal something that might have been taken for granted. For example, IT teams creating and acquiring tools that have no relationship to the Organizational Strategy or perhaps revealing the purchase of technology by non-IT teams which again has no relationship to the Organizational Strategy.
In short, there are 3 key points to consider for Business Transformation in terms of strategies:
Having said that, as corporate citizens of the organization, we have to realize that Strategies are not shelf-ware.
Merriam Webster defines politics to be the complex of relations between people living in a society. For our purposes, here society would refer to your organization. No one wants to talk about politics in the organization and yet there are decisions made every day that are political in nature.
Politics in organizations is about power; the power to frame a problem; the power to influence the decision and the power to make decisions. While we are all aware of the official power that is the power of your superior within the organization but most have also encountered unofficial power where regardless of the title an individual is able to persuade others. Some people call this leadership while others call it manipulation.
In organizations, while it may seem that all similar titles should hold the same power but that is certainly not the case. Even with VP titles, not all VPs are the same. Some have more power based on the number of people they manage, based on the revenue generated by their teams and even based on the relationships they have with others within the organization. So, the next time you look at an org chart and see all VPs at the same level you will know that an organizational chart is just a fairytale representation and not reality. Why this matter? This matter because the next time you are looking for champions to support your projects keeps a vigilant eye on who has power and how much of their power is used to make decisions.
The display of power is more relevant today in the age of big data than ever before. As you know, most Big Data initiatives revolve around gathering massive amounts of data and then finding patterns. The thought behind is that once we can figure out patterns then we can make better decisions. This, however, is not the complete picture. Beyond the usual Vs of Big Data, I believe there are 4 Vs that are critical but missing in most conversations.
These Vs are Vitality meaning how important the data is, Versatility meaning how data could be applied to various scenarios, Vocality meaning the supporters of data-driven approaches and lastly Veto meaning the ultimate authority to accept or reject big data conclusions. As you might have noticed, Vocality and Veto are about Power.
The idea of power also applies when you are creating an ERP System. The executives who have official and unofficial powers can become champions or become obstacles. One way to remedy this is to get them involved early on; have a discussion, find out pain points and get feedback. So, when it is time to stand up an ERP system, the people have been engaged from the beginning and it is not a surprise. Also, be prepared that business process optimization should be done first prior to any large scale systems because otherwise all you are doing is automating broken business processes and thus when it is time to optimize them it would become much harder to do so. Other examples of displaying power would be in Cloud Computing and Shadow IT.
In short, there are 2 key points to consider for Business Transformation in terms of politics:
Remember, politics needs to be understood especially in the case of organizations.
Innovation is defined to be the act or process of introducing new ideas, devices or methods. Innovation can be a new product, a new way of hiring people, a new way of doing business processes, a new service and it can also be a new technology. If there are so many ways of being innovative, why organizations and individuals struggle in this area?
For most, innovation is something that is considered difficult since people don’t know where to start or how to continue. Innovation comes from inspiration and I believe that organizations and individuals can be inspired by things around them. The left picture represents the possible sources of organizational inspiration for innovation. These sources include:
The picture on the right represents the possible sources of individual inspiration for innovation. These sources include:
Thus, it would be naïve for organizations to think that they cannot fully take advantage of innovation at the organizational and individual levels.
They have to remember that innovation is the lifeline.
Culture is a way of thinking, behaving, or working that exists in a place or organization. Often times when there is a discussion of culture within organizations we immediately think this is something fuzzy and it is only equated with people. While people definitely create culture but there is more to this than meets the eye.
You see culture is not just one thing but a combination of things. Most organizations don’t have one culture but they have a mix of sub-cultures. The way people are treated creates a sub-culture. For example, how are people within the organizations at all levels incentivized and rewarded? The way people dress creates a sub-culture. For example, if executives dress differently vs. non-executives this visibly creates the culture of in-crowd vs. outsiders. The posters in public locations, the discussion between Mac. Vs. Windows, IT behind closed doors and even an individual can create sub-cultures within an organization.
All of this matters because the culture is not just having a foosball table or other “perk”, it is creating an environment where employees are appreciated not just by a talk by the executive but by tangible actions through incentives, rewards and performance goals.
Culture is at the base of the SPICE factors for a reason.
Culture can make a strategy just another paper-exercise, culture can drastically affect politics, culture can resist organizational innovation, and culture can prevent effective execution of operations and all of this means that culture can diminish any hopes for Business Transformation.
Execution is the act of doing or performing something. If you notice in the above-mentioned factors, all of them need to be executed; measured and performed otherwise all we are doing is just wasting our breath and paper. As I see it, execution also has an organizational level and an individual level. Both of them are highly intertwined. If there are no structures and processes to determine and quantify execution issues then how would you know where your baseline is and if you don’t know where your baseline is then how would you know if your Business Transformation efforts have been successful or not.
Note that execution is highly based on biases and perceptions of organizations and individuals as discussed earlier. They have to be considered and if needed be persuaded to be changed.
Rewards and incentives can not only change behavior but it can enhance cohesion and collaboration across the organization.
Lesson learned are useless when all they are is a paper exercise of capturing what happened wrong or right but not an input for other projects so that they can avoid similar mistakes or repeat successes.
All the factors that have been discussed are not something that is done in isolation but they all come together to create an organization that is able to transform it self based and stay ahead of the game.
As we can see from the live survey, the most important area for Business Transformation is People and the most important factor for Business Transformation is execution.
Now, let’s go back to our dear friend John (aka your organization). With his understanding of the SPICE Factors and his awareness of how the SPICE Factors can affect people, business processes, products, services, and technologies, don’t you think he would have used his flashlight to find out what was in the baggage? Perhaps some of the baggage was the dead weight that he needed to get rid of and perhaps in the baggage, there were additional resources he could use such as food, liquids and even a map. But the only way John would find out would be to look behind and just check his baggage!
All I am saying is…help John find his way and help him succeed!
Organizational transformation entails understanding where the organization is today and where it wants to be tomorrow in terms of people, products, services, processes, and technologies. In order to accomplish this transformation, we have to determine the organization’s ‘eligibility’ by assessing its Strategy, Politics, Innovation, Culture and Execution (SPICE) factors. The SPICE factors help us determine (1) the underlying motivations of why the strategy was developed, (2) who are the power players in the organization, (3) who is really responsible for innovation, (4) who is an example of corporate culture and (5) who would help in carrying out this transformation across the organization.
As the organization begins its transformation journey, one glaring fact that is revealed is that the most crucial element to accomplishing change cannot occur without people. People are your organization’s lifeblood. People are the biggest champions of change or the biggest obstacle to it. Thus, in order to bring transformational changes in the organization, we have to understand the following concepts that affect individuals and group dynamics:
A. Inclusive Transparency
1. Cumulative Error – Your message of transformation can be distorted along the way and could be translated into many things (e.g., layoffs, outsourcing, etc.). To address this:
2. Deep Time – People believe that the past was shorter than the future. For organizational transformation, this means that if the future does not have a due date then there is the tendency to think that transformation can happen at a later time. To address this:
3. Externalities – Everyone affects everyone even if they don’t know it. For organizational transformation, this means that even the most isolated action in the organization can hinder change. This could be merely someone saying that they don’t believe transformation is going to be successful without giving any constructive feedback. Essentially, by saying this what people have done is created an opinion that is the seed to create doubt in others. To understand this:
4. Inference to the Best Explanation – The truth behind something is often reasonable and the best explanation. For organizations transformation what this means is that while there are many truths behind the failure of a transformation activity but often times it is the simplest explanation of what happened that prevails. Of course, we have to be cognizant that this explanation is bias-free and objective. To determine this:
5. Shifting Baseline Syndrome – Depending upon various variables, being ‘normal’ differs from one person to another. For organizational transformation, this means that the perception of what needs to be achieved can drastically vary from executive to the individual contributors. To address this:
6. Subselves and Modular Minds – People have multiple versions of themselves which change and morphs based on who they interact with. For organizational transformation, this means that to get to the truth behind the truth be ready not to take things at just face value. To understand this:
B. Bite-Sized Information
7. Cognitive Humility – People have a finite capacity of absorbing and retrieving information. Due to this finite capacity, people look for information that sits well with their own perceptions. For organizational transformation efforts, this means that if it is perceived that something similar has happened in the past with no great results then your current transformation effort would be considered just another ‘talk’. To address this:
8. Cognitive Load – At any given moment in time, people can only handle small amounts of information to make decisions. If there is too much information then there is a high likelihood of stagnation that often results in indecisions. Perhaps that is why video game designer gives the player bare minimum information (e.g., lives remaining, mission completion status, etc.) so that they can accomplish what they need to and move on to the next task. To address this:
9. Constraint Satisfaction – With too many options we become paralyzed and thus in order to get things to get moving we have to have some constraints around them. These constraints can come from within or outside the organization for the purposes of transformation efforts. To address this:
10. Cultural Attractor – People are attracted to ideas and thoughts that are easily digestible. Simplicity is the name of the game even in organizational transformation efforts regardless of how complex it really is. To address this:
11. Name Game – We are biologically programmed to name things and classify them but often times this can lead to not understanding what is behind that name. For organizational transformation, this means that create activities names that are easily identifiable. To use this:
12. Umwelt – People often accept reality without going into depth. For organizational transformation, this means that due to the increasing pace of businesspeople have developed certain shortcuts in their minds of how things work. To address this:
C. Big Picture
13. Contingent Superorganisms – After people have achieved what they want to achieve individually then they automatically become more open to helping others and larger audiences. That is why at a certain point in time, people like to give back and create a legacy of selfishness. For organizational transformation, it becomes really important to figure out who these people are. These are not necessarily those who are perceived to be accomplished (e.g. superstar executive etc.) but it could anyone from the lowest rungs of the organization to people outside the organization. To address this:
14. Copernican Principal – People often feel that their role is insignificant compared to the big picture. These thoughts can lead to people being tuned out and just punching the clock rather than understanding their value in the organization. To address this:
15. Focusing Illusion – People often focus on the ‘only if’ and live in its illusion. For organizational transformation, this means that people often mistake transformation as a big bang activity while it is a slow steady approach to constantly improving organizations. To address this:
16. Holism – The idea here is that in the big picture, the little details do count as well. For organizational transformation, this means that no information is minuscule enough that it has no effect of transformation. In fact, even the minuscule information if not understood and addressed can lead to a snowball effect that can come from the left-field when it comes to the transformation journey. To understand this:
17. Positive Sum Game – Everyone wins. For organizational transformation, this means that transformation objectives should be balanced in a way that all teams that are involved get benefits out of it. For some, this benefit would be having a better idea of how the business works, for some this benefit, would be doing more with less, for some this benefit would be transitioning to another career. To create a positive-sum game:
18. Powers of Ten – By understanding scaling laws you can have a better idea of where anything sits in the bigger scheme of things. For organizational transformation, this means that you should ask and assess and assign actual values in terms of the magnitude of transformational activities. To do this:
19. Self-Serving Bias – People perceive themselves to be better than others. For organizational transformation, this means that for successful people would take credit but for failure, they would blame others. To address this:
D. Patterns Matters
20. Cycles – Everything is cyclical. For organizational transformation efforts, this is a disaster repeating itself in terms of hiring the same kind of people, redundant processes and outdated technologies. To address this:
21. Double-Blind Control Experiments – This method is used to identify the underlying biases people have without even recognizing them. In organizational transformation, this can mean the difference between onboard or just being an observer to see what happens. Use this method to:
22. Fixed-Action Patterns – Certain behaviors and attitudes displayed by people are not necessarily biases but have been learned and reinforced over time so it becomes a habit. To leverage this:
23. Hidden Layers – As time progresses people develop layers between what is the reality and what is perception. These layers help develop habits that can be restarted even after practice years later. For organizational transformation, this means that success and failures are learned over time and can be used to affect the organization. To figure this out:
24. Predictive Coding – People are a product of what happens to them and over time this becomes a pattern recognition system to engage or avoid. For organizational transformation, this means that people’s thoughts and eventual actions are based on what has happened to them. To leverage this:
E. Team Creation
25. Effective Theory – If you can’t measure it then you can’t improve it. For organizational transformation, what this means is that while it is useful to have plans and work towards achieving the objectives of those plans but they are meaningless if it is not being measured. To assess this:
26. Expanding In-Group – The world is a global village and there is more interconnectedness than anytime else in our history. This interconnectedness can lead to looking at solving problems from different angles. For organizational transformation, this means that the more diverse and cross-over that you have in your teams, the better it would be able to solve problems on a bigger scale. To leverage this:
27. Fear of the Unknown – People’s known and unknown biases can make them inaccurately determine their risks and benefits. For organizational transformation, this can mean the difference between making a big gain versus remaining in the status quo. To accomplish this, do:
28. Rational Unconsciousness – People make conscious and unconscious decisions despite their awareness of their weaknesses. For organizational transformation, this means that despite people’s knowledge of what is the right thing to do people unconsciously continue to do the opposite. To address this:
29. Structured Serendipity – Luck is found through a concerted effort in achieving objectives. For organizational transformation, this means that a structure should be put in place with the ability to be flexible and adapt if necessary. To do this:
F. Experimental Boundaries
30. Failure Liberates Success – Encourage failure and experimentation. For organizational transformation, give your teams the ability to refine, reiterate and rethink problems to solutions. To influence this:
31. Kaleidoscopic Discovery Engine – When it comes to insights and innovation, people are always learning from each other. For organizational transformation, this means that there is constant learning activity going on within and outside the organization. Sometimes these activities can excel in the transformation journey if they are given enough thought. To leverage this:
32. Pessimism Meta-Induction – Every theory is up for debate and discussion in light of new evidence. For organizational transformation, what this means is that the organization has to be constantly challenged to question the status quo not only periodically but also ad hoc to check if stated objectives are being achieved. To accomplish this:
33. Randomness – There are certain things that we cannot control. For organizational transformation, this means that regardless of how pristine and well-thought-out your plan for transformation is it is bound to run into unanticipated obstacles. To plan for this:
34. Skeptical Empiricism – Don’t believe by merely observing but by careful thought. For organizational transformation, this means that most people get easily swayed by what they observe and thus mechanisms should be put into place where they are free to challenge the status quo with evidence and deep thoughts. To remedy this:
35. Uncalculated Risks – People often worry about the big stuff but don’t take into account the little stuff that can affect their risk-taking. For organizational transformation, this means that being less precautious on the little stuff can slowly thwart efforts. To address this:
Now that we have understood the varying concepts that affect organizational transformation efforts, let’s ask the following questions:
In the Future
|Who is involved in organizational transformation activities within and outside the organization?||Who should be involved in organizational transformation activities within and outside the organization?|
|What outcomes the organizational transformation activities are revealing?||What results are expected for organizational transformation?|
|Where does organizational transformation begin?||Where should organizational transformation begin?|
|When does organizational transformation become important?||When should organizational transformation become important?|
|Why people work on organizational transformation?||Why people should and shouldn’t work on organizational transformation?|
When you are asking the above questions, keep in mind that organizational transformation entails all aspects of the organization. Without people transformation, without process transformation, without product/service transformation and without technological transformation, there is no transformation at all but just another illusion of transformation.